On January 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation freeing three quarters of the slaves in the United States. However, the proclamation only freed those slaves in rebel states. To attain freedom, slaves still had to escape to the Union. Students consider whether Lincoln freed the slaves, or the slaves freed themselves by comparing excerpts from the Emancipation Proclamation and The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass.
Image: Illustration of African-American Union soldier reading the Emancipation Proclamation made by J.W. Watts in 1864. From the Library of Congress.