Historians and archaeologists have determined that the Egyptian pyramids were constructed by tens of thousands of workers laboring across two to three decades on each. What remains less certain is who these workers were. In this lesson students read five documents to answer the question: Did slaves build the Great Pyramid at Giza?

Note: Modified versions of all of the documents are included in the Lesson Plan file.
[Lesson Plan updated on 5/13/16.]


Thanks a lot for this lesson. All the materials are well chosen. You made my day brighter.
Hi anhudgins! We encourage you to use the Guiding Questions as a form of assessment. We also encourage you to check out Beyond the Bubble, our history assessment website, at
Hi I'm getting to understand this curriculum and would like to know how assessments are provided in the classroom? Do you strictly use the written work they have done or is there some sort of assessment at the end of each lesson?
What a great lesson! I have been teaching it now for three years, and each time it gets students talking. Each group seems to have a different perspective and still has information to make it up. I love it.
These lessons are really helping me to deliver an international history curriculum in an international school (always a tricky assignment). The resources are very effective across the age range I teach, as they are both comprehensive and flexible and also teach the skills of working with sources that are central to the UK style of history teaching. This has allowed my 11-year-olds to do some serious historical thinking, whilst at the same time joyfully imagining what the Friends of Khufu Gang might have got up to at the weekend! I am very grateful to have found this invaluable site.
Hi julicremeans! Of Documents A-E, only Document A and Document C are modified. The others are original (or excerpted from the original), so we didn't reproduce them again in the Original Documents file. Instead, you can find them in the Lesson Plan file. Other than Document A, the original versions of the documents are available elsewhere online. You can see where to find them by viewing the citations we include on page 3 of the lesson plan file.
I can only find Original Document A. Where are Documents B-E?
Great lesson. I have 100 students who can now speak with authority on Herodotus.
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